All with Chronic pain – CRPS Event in La Jolla Nov 6 – RSDSA Integrative Health Conference

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I hope you will attend this event on November 6 for all with chronic pain.

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The amazing and wonderful RSD Association announced a pain conference in La Jolla on November 6. The executive director, Mr. James Broatch, will be there that day. I will be one of the speakers.

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They also announced other events all across the country. Please join in their efforts.

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Their work applies to most people with pain, and is not specific to Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, CRPS or RSD. Pain management can be very difficult. I hope you will attend. They fund outstanding research and help so many people. They announce:

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Individuals with CRPS, are they being treated in a way that optimizes wellness? What can we do to treat the whole person not just the CRPS? Join us for brunch, discussions, and dialogue on treating the Whole Person and Optimizing Wellness. We are bringing together exceptional health professionals who understand how and sincerely attempt to find better way to live with CRPS. We will discuss the latest in integrative health approaches and innovative treatments that build and strengthen the body’s ability to function more effectively.

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  • Date:  Sunday, November 6, 2016
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  • Location:  La Estancia Hotel La Jolla, La Jolla, CA
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  • Time:  10:00 am – 3:30 pm (PDT)
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  • Registration/Details:  Registration is now open, please REGISTER NOW!

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  • Contact:  Jim Broatch at 877.662.7737 or info@rsds.org

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    The material on this site is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice,

    diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified health care provider.

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    Please understand that it is not legal for me to give medical advice without a consultation.

    If you wish an appointment, please telephone my office.

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    For My Home Page, click here:  Welcome to my Weblog on Pain Management!

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    The advertising below is not recommended by me.

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Neuropathic Pain Medications – review & metanalysis of 229 studies

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This review was done by many of the best pain specialists from all over the world. You will not find answers in that large review if neuropathic pain has already failed tricyclic antidepressants (Elavil, amitriptyline, Norpramin desipramine, others), gabapentin (Neurontin), pregabalin (Lyrica), lidocaine, capsaicin, or opioids. That is the current paradigm. A new paradigm – glial modulators  – that I discuss on this site, may or may not give relief.

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A member of the International Association for Study of Pain, IASP, published a brief critique of that comprehensive review of 229 trials of medications for neuropathic pain published in Lancet Neurology February 2015. The critique is posted below, done by a member of the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group, NeuPSIG.

 

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To understand the metanalysis of these 229 trials, you need to understand the simple concept of number needed to treat, NNT.

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NNT is an estimate of “the number of patients that need to be treated in order to have an impact on one person.”

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The smaller the number, the more effective the drug. Example, NNT of 7.2 for gabapentin means you need to treat  7.2 people before a response. If 3, need to treat 3 before a response.

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Barsook (Harvard, ref. below) reviewed ketamine studies in 2009:  “they did show a level of efficacy (of ketamine) based on NNT that equals or betters most drug trials for this condition.”

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“NeuPSIG has just published an up to date systematic review on the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in Lancet Neurology. They have negotiated with the journal to make it available beautifully open access. You can download it for free here.”

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Neil O’Connell, Brunel University London

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“This is a comprehensive review, containing 229 trials of the full range of pharmacological agents using robust methods, to synthesize, summarise and make value judgements about the quality of the available evidence. So what are the take home messages?”

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“Using a primary outcome of achieving at least 50% pain relief trial outcomes were described as “generally modest”. The number of patients needed to treat with the drug compared to a placebo for one more person to achieve this outcome ranged from a relatively rosy 3.6 (95% confidence interval 3 to 4.4) for tricyclic antidepressants such as amitryptiline, 4.3 (95%CI 3.4 to 5.80 for strong opioids to a less impressive 7.2 (95%CI 5.9 to 9.21) for gabapentin, and 7.7 (6.5 to 9.4) for pregabalin (often sold under the brand-name Lyrica). It’s interesting, at least to me, how much better the older more traditional agents seem to have fared compared on effectiveness to the more modern (and commonly more expensive) agents although the safety and tolerability of gabapentin seems superior.”

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“The spectre of publication bias also raises its head. The reviewers carefully took a number of routes to try to unpick this notoriously difficult issue and estimate that there has been overall a 10% overstatement of treatment effects. Published studies reported larger effect sizes than did unpublished studies. This is not a problem restricted to the field of pain trials. It is a burning issue across the world of clinical trials. It is very important because if we fail to base our clinical recommendations on the totality of relevant evidence (because some data are hidden from us) we are in danger of mis-estimating the benefits and the harms and as a result patients are put at risk. If you think that is pretty important then there are ways that you can help. Check out the All-Trials campaign.”

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“Overall what does this mean? Many drugs are effective but not as effective as we would wish them to be. No pharmacological agent really impresses and for any drug the most probable outcome is failure to produce 50% pain relief. There are various potential reasons for this. The first is that the drugs may only be moderately or marginally effective, another is that neuropathic pain includes quite a mixed bag and our ability to accurately diagnose and to target drugs to specific mechanisms in the clinic is currently fairly poor.”

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“The NeuPSIG review team formulate a number of recommendations for revision of their clinical guideline for managing NP pain, balancing the benefits, harms, costs and strength of the evidence.”

  • a strong recommendation for use and proposal as a first-line treatment in neuropathic pain for tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, pregabalin, and gabapentin;

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    • a weak recommendation for use and proposal as a second line treatment for lidocaine patches, capsaicin high-concentration patches, and tramadol; and a weak recommendation for use and proposal as third line for strong opioids and botulinum toxin A. Topical agents and botulinum toxin A are recommended for peripheral neuropathic pain only.

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“This email [from IASP’s NeuPSIG] is also published as a blogpost at www.bodyinmind.org”

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References

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Finnerup NB, Attal N, Haroutounian S et al. Pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol. 2015;14:2:162-73.

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Glial modulators – another paradigm

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From my January 2012 brief review of publications on ketamine, only one of a handful of glial modulators, this author says reviews “show a level of efficacy based on NNT that equals or betters most drug trials for this condition.

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Ketamine and chronic pain – Going the distance, David Barsook, Director, P.A.I.N. Group, Massachusetts General, McLean and Children’s Hospitals, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA;

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This paper covers essential points not mentioned by many, thus quoted at length below:

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Our current therapeutic armamentarium is quite limited in terms of analgesic efficacy in controlled trials. Some would argue that the small efficacy (both at a population level and the magnitude of change in VAS score) this is related to the fact that we need to consider mechanistic approaches to chronic pain subgroups. However, patients and clinicians find themselves in a position of “what to do now”.

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Ketamine, brain function and therapeutic effect – neuroprotective or neurotoxic

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With the onset of chronic pain (including CRPS) a number of changes in brain function occur in the human brain including but not limited to: (1) central sensitization ; (2) functional plasticity in chronic pain and in CRPS; (3) gray matter volume loss in CRPS ; (4) chemical alterations ; and (5) altered modulatory controls. Such changes are thought to be in part a result of excitatory amino acid release in chronic pain. Excitatory amino acids are present throughout the brain and are normally involved in neural transmission but may contribute to altered function with excessive release producing increased influx of calcium and potentially neural death. Here lies the conundrum the use of an agent that potentially deleteriously affect neurons that may already be compromised but may also have neuroprotective properties by mechanisms that include reducing phosphorylation of glutamate receptors resulting in decreased glutamatergic synaptic transmission and reduced potential excitotoxicity . Alternatively, ketamine may affect glia regulation of glutamate and inhibit glutamate release within glia. However, by whatever mechanism ketamine acts on CRPS pain, there does seem to be a dose/duration effect in that longer doses at levels tolerated by patients seem to prove more effective in terms of the duration of effects.

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So what could be happening in the brain and what is required to alter brain systems and reverse the symptomatic state? Ketamine may diminish glutamate transmission and “resets” brain circuits, but it seems that a minimal dose and/or duration of treatment is required. Alternatively, ketamine may produce neurotoxicity and damage or produce a chemical lesion of affected neurons. These two issues are important to be understood in future trials. Reports from patients who have had anesthetic doses have included prolonged pain relief for many months. While the authors did not address issues such as the effect of dosing duration or repetitive dosing at say 6weeks, they did show a level of efficacy based on NNT that equals or betters most drug trials for this condition.”

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Conclusions

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As a community we have a major opportunity to define the efficacy and use of a drug that may offer more to CRPS (and perhaps other) patients than is currently available. This is clearly an opportunity that needs urgent attention and a number of questions remain to be answered. For example, is ketamine more effective in early stage disease? How does ketamine provide long-term effects? Further controlled trials evaluating dose, duration, anesthetic vs. non-anesthetic dosing are needed. Few of us really understand what it is like to suffer from a chronic pain condition such as CRPS. Ketamine therapy may be a way forward that can be brought into our clinical practice through further controlled studies that will allow for appropriate standards for use in patients.

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The material on this site is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice,

diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified health care provider.

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Please understand that it is not legal for me to give medical advice without a consultation.

If you wish an appointment, please telephone my office.

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For My Home Page, click here:  Welcome to my Weblog on Pain Management!

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Ketamine Survey for MD’s from RSDSA – Please Help

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Jim Broatch, Executive Director of RSDSA requests help from doctors giving IV Ketamine to treat CRPS. Please ask your doctor to do the survey. 

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 https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/ZPP9BXY

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And remember, if you shop Amazon, you can direct Amazon to contribute a portion to RSDS.org —- many thanks! 

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This site is educational, not for email.

Relevant comments are welcome.

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Advertising on this free website, below, is not endorsed or sanctioned by me.

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Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Remission 6 years

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 Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

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Celebrating six years of complete remission

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Why ketamine should never be used alone

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I first posted her case here. 

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For years, pain below both knees was 8 to 9 on scale of 10, “like I had swallowed a fire burning.”

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She was unable to stand or walk for more than 4 years before seeing me. This week, I again saw this very healthy athletic RN who at almost 70 of age is very youthful, very energetic. She failed IV ketamine given first by Dr. Schwartzman daily for one week, then boosters for 8 months.

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After 8 months of ketamine, then no response at all. None. 

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That’s when I prescribed other glial modulators and rational polypharmacy that brought CRPS into remission. Then very very slowly tapered off all but one, leaving only low dose naltrexone (LDN) for the last 8 years. Zero pain. None. Hiking, working, fully active.

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When used in conditions with known neuro-inflammation, rats or human, LDN is a one of the most powerful, most effective glial modulators I have ever seen clinically in my patients in the last 15 years.

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Until proven otherwise clinically, LDN should be taken lifelong in those cases.

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This website is not for email.

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The advertising is not approved by me and

unrelated to anything on these pages.

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The material on this site is for informational purposes only, and

is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified health care provider.

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For My Home Page, click here:  Welcome to my Weblog on Pain Management!

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Ketamine Prescribed Since 1994 – My Experience

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Ketamine offers an opportunity for normal life unmatched by any medication I know of when given off-label for chronic treatment of intractable pain, treatment resistant depression, bipolar depression, juvenile bipolar disorder. It is one of the safest medications I have prescribed in 41 years of medicine. I have never seen anything more effective – it is not a cure, but remission is highly possible. Please refer to peer reviewed references since 2009 on this website on ketamine and depression or pain. Read elsewhere about street drugs, junkies, addicts and media headlines.

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Never Ketamine Alone

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Ketamine is short acting no matter how it is given.

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I never prescribe ketamine by itself – a fools errand; the religion of ketamine is like the religion of opioids. Decades of intractable conditions and chronic neuroinflammation require more than one short acting drug and usually require a multi-disciplinary approach. I work with psychologists or psychiatrists and other specialists when indicated.

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Entourage effect 

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DRUGS ARE LIKE POLITICIANS. A FAMOUS POLITICIAN MAY WALK UNRECOGNIZED, BUT WHEN YOU SURROUND HIM OR HER
WITH MANY PEOPLE, EVEN OF LESSER STATUS, THE POLITICIAN HAS A FAR MORE POWERFUL EFFECT.

Mechoulam

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1994 – I first prescribed IV when teaching cancer pain at MD Anderson Cancer Center.

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2001 – prescribed for outpatient care of chronic intractable pain

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2011 – prescribed for treatment resistant depression, bipolar depressed, juvenile bipolar/fear of harm phenotype often diagnosed as oppositional defiant disorder.

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2009 – writing about ketamine, neuro-inflammation and glial modulators on this site, with classic references to publications from the foremost peer reviewed journals, including low dose naltrexone, oxytocin.

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Dosing

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Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Juvenile Bipolar/FOH, treatment resistant – may need a dose only twice daily or every 3 days. The dose and frequency of use cannot be predicted – it is idiosyncratic – look up that word.

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Intractable pain – dosing and frequency of medications is very different than for depression.

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My work with these medications, these glial modulators, is too extensive to annotate on these pages. This website since April 2009 has references for context and guidance with active links to peer reviewed publications. Example:

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Clinical experience using intranasal ketamine in the treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder/fear of harm phenotype. D Papolos et al, J Affect Disord. 2013 May;147(1-3):431-6.

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RESULTS:

Ketamine administration was associated with a substantial reduction in measures of mania, fear of harm and aggression. Significant improvement was observed in mood, anxiety and behavioral symptoms, attention/executive functions, insomnia, parasomnias and sleep inertia. Treatment was generally well-tolerated.

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CONCLUSIONS:

Intranasal ketamine administration in treatment-resistant youth with BD-FOH produced marked improvement in all symptomatic dimensions. A rapid, substantial therapeutic response, with only minimal side effects was observed. Formal clinical trials to assess safety and efficacy are warranted.

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mTOR-Dependent Synapse Formation Underlies the Rapid Antidepressant Effects of NMDA Antagonists. R Duman et al, August 2010, Science, Science 2010 Aug: Vol. 329, Issue 5994, pp. 959- 964. [this article free with registration]
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ABSTRACT:

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We observed that ketamine rapidly activated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, leading to increased synaptic signaling proteins and increased number and function of new spine synapses in the prefrontal cortex of rats. Moreover, blockade of mTOR signaling completely blocked ketamine induction of synaptogenesis and behavioral responses in models of depression. Our results demonstrate that these effects of ketamine are opposite to the synaptic deficits that result from exposure to stress and could contribute to the fast antidepressant actions of ketamine.

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“The resulting protein synthesis and neuronal alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex are the opposite of those produced by chronic stress….”

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Read elsewhere about street drugs, junkies, addicts and media headlines.

If that is you, see an addictionologist, not me.

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Some medications can be drugs of abuse but every patient and every medication that I dispense is followed meticulously. If any sign of misuse or abuse, that unfortunate person is immediately discharged and referred elsewhere.

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For my Home Page, click here: 

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Welcome to my Weblog on Pain Management!

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This site is not for email or medical advice.

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It is not legal for me to give medical advice

unless you are my patient which means I have done a medical history and examination.

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I generally accept only those who have failed most or all known treatments, and only those who I feel I can help.

 

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I interview each patient before accepting.

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Any advertising below is not recommended or condoned by me.

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Medicine Costly, Where’s the Gain?

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It’s been seven years since starting this blog April 2009.

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To find information:

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  1. SEARCH – small rectangle, top left above my photo

  2. TAGS – size indicates frequency the topic was posted, bottom left narrow column

     

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Sorry there’s no time to make the site easier for you to find your way around.

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I hope you all have a good summer. Get some much needed rest.

 

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It has been a blessing to have this resource as a way to structure and teach myself the many research publications and ideas I come across in Pain Management, Neurology, Integrative Medicine, Neuroimmunology and, yes, maybe politics of medicine. I only wish I had had this tool decades ago so that I didn’t have to recreate the ones I’ve already reviewed and forgotten in the last 41 years, long before MRI scans and decades before computers in daily medicine. Now we all risk carpal tunnel from repetitive injury, which is why I need to stop posting for awhile.

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This great experience and months of effort has rewarded me, bringing me in touch with the RSD Organization, device manufacturers, editors, publishers, academics, CEO’s, scientists, physicians and patients from around the world. Thank you all!

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The politics of the world is spinning fast, harsh winds are blowing, prices of drugs are beyond belief, beyond beyond — $50,000 to $100,000 a year for new drugs. My own colleagues cannot afford $5,000 insurance deductible for visits and medication. If you are diagnosed with cancer, pray it is January before your $5,000 or $10,000 deductible comes up again at end of year. Medical care in this country is in a down spiral, affordable to the few.

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Until I see something exciting to write about, I’m over and out. What more is there to say?

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Give us some hope in research for pain and major depression. Something more we can use now, something covered by healthcare insurers who seem not to cover much of anything anymore.

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Many insurance companies have not updated reimbursement rates for some specialties for 10 or 20 years. The specialties that had the highest percentage of doctors who accept insurance are cardiology, oncology and orthopedic surgery.

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Only 55% of psychiatrists accept insurance. How sad is that? When people need Mental Health Care more than ever, what do they do but in desperation, some turn to drugs, self treating, while the $3 trillion dollar war on drugs has created and perpetuates the spiral of addiction and endless funding that only serves to enrich the military prison industrial complex.

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War does not work. Medical care works. Instead of war on drugs, war on addiction, we need medical care not war. Medical care for addiction, medical care to prevent pain, to prevent and support mental illness, to prevent addiction.

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While setting writing aside, I shall enjoy turning more of my attention to my patients. It is a privilege to work with so many fine people, striving to put disabling conditions into remission.

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If you find exciting news, please post news below.

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I wish you all a wonderful summer – get some time out!

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For those with CRPS RSD, note a new comment on this site, this past week, on Neridronic Acid.

It was posted in an unrelated section at bottom on my home page.

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 For my Home Page, click here: 

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Welcome to my Weblog on Pain Management!

 

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This site is not for email or medical advice.

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It is not legal for me to give medical advice

unless you are my patient

which means I have done a medical history and examination.

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I generally accept only those

who have failed most or all known treatments,

and only those who I feel I can help.

 

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I interview each patient before accepting.

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Any advertising below is not recommended or condoned by me.

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CRPS – Appendicitis treated with antibiotics can avoid surgery

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For someone who has CRPS/RSD, any trauma including surgery can severely flare CRPS and/or cause it to spread.

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A young man in his mid 20’s was headed for surgery for acute appendicitis last night. He is resolving now, 24 hours later, with IV antibiotics as I suggested. He’s the first in his hospital, a major hospital in Los Angeles.

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Dad called me last night. Mom texted me reports of CT abdomen showing thickened wall of appendix, and all labs consistent with acute bacterial appendicitis: WBC’s elevated 15.1, elevated neutrophils consistent with bacteria rather than virus. Overnight, his generalized abdominal pain is now focal and much reduced, WBC’s are ~8, well within normal range including neutrophils, and he took a good walk in hospital. By day two, WBC count was 5, normal, no elevation in neutrophils indicating brisk response to antibiotics knocking out bacteria. He’ll go home on oral antibiotics probably tomorrow. I asked and was told he has chronic constipation which begs the question if it can trigger infection because of sluggish gut.

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Treatment & References

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1. If you have CRPS, then before any procedure small, large or dental, begin minocycline, a glial modulator. It was found in animal research many years ago to prevent flare or spread of CRPS.

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2. Antibiotics IV for the bowel.

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Below is a list of articles, most from the outstanding library of the Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Association. Their vast collection of publications is organized by subject. I strongly recommend donating to them.

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Minocycline inhibits microglia activation and alters spinal Endocannabinoids

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Minocycline Neuroprotective- Johns Hopkins 2010 Archives of Neurology

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CRPS prolonged remission obtained by treatment of intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A multicenter study from Washington University in St. Louis, Stanford, Brown University.

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Effectiveness of Patient Choice in Nonoperative vs Surgical Management of Pediatric Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis. One year prospective study from Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, JAMA December 2016. IV Antibiotics for at least one day followed by 10 days of oral antibiotics.

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“Conclusions and Relevance  When chosen by the family, nonoperative management is an effective treatment strategy for children with uncomplicated acute appendicitis, incurring less morbidity and lower costs than surgery.”

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Antibiotics alone can be a safe, effective treatment for children with appendicitis. An article from Science Daily about the Nationwide Children’s Hospital study.

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“Families who choose to treat their child’s appendicitis with antibiotics, even those who ended up with an appendectomy because the antibiotics didn’t work, have expressed that for them it was worth it to try antibiotics to avoid surgery,” said Peter C. Minneci, MD, one of the authors.

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The appendix may be an important reservoir of bacteria to populate the gut with good bugs, our healthy microbiome.

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Why don’t we see appendicitis more often in adults?

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Surgery has very real potential dangers that may include infection, abscess, pulmonary emboli, cardiac arrythmias, brain damage from loss of oxygen, death. Years later, there may be chronic abdominal pain from scarring, adhesions of bowel, leading to more surgery to lyse the adhesions. Or acute pain from infarcted bowel when needed oxygen gets choked by adhesions that cause necrosis of segments of bowel, intense pain or perforation, possible death.

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Specific to laparoscopic surgery, I have seen two patients who developed years of intractable abdominal pain from the scope itself and in 2015 there was a recall of scopes across the country that caused death and/or antibiotic resistant infections carried on segments of the scope that could not be sterilized. Another concern, during laparoscopic surgery, they blow up the abdomen under very high pressures to float the organs away from the scope. Very high pressure.

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 Constipation

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Let’s see a study to determine how often chronic constipation is present for years potentially causing the appendix to become inflamed. This young man will be taking a stool softener such as DSS or Colace (same thing), and if that doesn’t work then a prescription for Amitiza is something to consider.

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There are 70,000 surgeries for appendicitis each year in children, usually teens, more often in males. In many cases the appendage is normal and surgery unnecessary.

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Antibiotics for uncomplicated appendicitis could save lives, prevent acute and long term complications, and lower healthcare costs.

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Immune cells make appendix ‘silent hero’ of digestive health

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November 30, 2015. . .Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are crucial for protecting against bacterial infection in people with compromised immune systems, report investigators. Their work shows that a network of immune cells helps the appendix to play a pivotal role in maintaining health of the digestive system, supporting the theory that the appendix isn’t redundant.
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The research team, a collaborative partnership between the groups of Professor Gabrielle Belz of Melbourne’s Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, and Professor Eric Vivier at the Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, France, found that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are crucial for protecting against bacterial infection in people with compromised immune systems.

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By preventing significant damage and inflammation of the appendix during a bacterial attack, ILCs safeguard the organ and help it to perform an important function in the body, as a natural reservoir for ‘good’ bacteria. The research is published in today’s issue of Nature Immunology.

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Professor Gabrielle Belz, a laboratory head in the institute’s Molecular Immunology division, said the study’s findings show that the appendix deserves more credit than it has historically been given.

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“Popular belief tells us the appendix is a liability,” she said. “Its removal is one of the most common surgical procedures in Australia, with more than 70,000 operations each year. However, we may wish to rethink whether the appendix is so irrelevant for our health.

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“We’ve found that ILCs may help the appendix to potentially reseed ‘good’ bacteria within the microbiome — or community of bacteria — in the body. A balanced microbiome is essential for recovery from bacterial threats to gut health, such as food poisoning.”

Professor Belz said having a healthy appendix might even save people from having to stomach more extreme options for repopulating — or ‘balancing out’ — their microbiomes.

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“In certain cases, people require reseeding of their intestines with healthy bacteria by faecal transplant — a process where intestinal bacteria is transplanted to a sick person from a healthy individual,” Professor Belz said. “Our research suggests ILCs may be able to play this important part in maintaining the integrity of the appendix.

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“We found ILCs are part of a multi-layered protective armoury of immune cells that exist in healthy individuals. So even when one layer is depleted, the body has ‘back ups’ that can fight the infection.

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“In people who have compromised immune systems — such as people undergoing cancer treatment — these cells are vital for fighting bacterial infections in the gastrointestinal system. This is particularly important because ILCs are able to survive in the gut even during these treatments, which typically wipe out other immune cells.”

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Professor Belz has previously shown that diet, such as the proteins in leafy green vegetables, could help produce ILCs. “ILCs are also known to play a role in allergic diseases, such as asthma; inflammatory bowel disease; and psoriasis,” she said. “So it is vital that we better understand their role in the intestine and how we might manipulate this population to treat disease, or promote better health.”

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This site is not for email.

If any questions, please schedule an appointment with my office.

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The material on this site is for informational purposes only.

It is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment

provided by a qualified health care provider.

Relevant comments are welcome.

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For My Home Page, click here: 

Welcome to my Weblog on Pain Management!

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Please be aware any advertising on this free educational website is

NOT advocated by me and NOT approved by me.

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