Cannabis That Can Stop the Munchies? What is THCV?


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MEDICAL MARIJUANA

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Cannabis is legal in California for adult use as of January 1, 2018. This may be helpful to someone you know. It is a most important drug. Below you can find a few pointers that are basic to understanding what strains to try. Distributors are swamped with ten times as many buyers as last week, prices are doubled, taxes are very high, it is very expensive and you will need to test many strains before you find what works for you without making you stupid with euphoria that lasts 12 hours. Do be warned of turning the body into sofa-size obesity overnight. Munchies occur with high THC strains. To discuss below how to avoid that torture and still relieve pain or muscle spasm.

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Horvath et al at Yale in 2015 found cannabis stimulates hunger and arousal in hypothalamic neurons. Here’s the YaleNews on the multi-authored work.

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Horvath is the Jean and David W. Wallace Professor of Neurobiology and of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, director of the Yale Program in Cell Signaling and Neurobiology of Metabolism, and chair of the Section of Comparative Medicine.

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To orient you in the quote below, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is one of the two known cannabinoid receptors in the brain. Others are located outside brain, throughout the body.

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“The Pomc gene encodes both the anorexigenic peptide α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and the opioid peptide β-endorphin. Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons promote satiety. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is critical for the central regulation of food intake. CB1R activation selectively increases β-endorphin but not α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone release in the hypothalamus, and systemic or hypothalamic administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks acute CB1R-induced feeding.

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Interesting. Low dose naltrexone, which is essentially long acting naloxone, may block munchies in humans? At what dose? Please comment if you take naltrexone 4.5 mg or 15 mg (anti-inflammatory doses) or 28 mg (weight loss dose) or 50 mg and above doses of naltrexone (high doses for addiction).

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One strain that is better at stopping or reducing the munchies, and that is believed due to a cannabinoid in the strain called THCV. You can always do a search for THCV.

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Cannabis is one of the few medications that can relieve some of the worst side effects of opioid withdrawal. Many patients find they need to use fewer opioid pills for pain or can stop them altogether; they need to use fewer muscle relaxants; and they can eat or sleep better if they use cannabis. Once cannabis became legal, many alcoholics were able to give up alcohol because their first preference is cannabis.

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Get a low cost recommendation for medical marijuana in minutes at home from your mobile phone. The best source for recommendation is : HelloMD.

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Cannabis may be legal in all states once tobacco companies toss some money at Congress. Could cannabis be related to the vow of Phillip Morris and a wave of big tobacco companies to stop selling cigarettes this year?

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It is dreadfully expensive and heavily taxed. All states should adopt New Mexico’s law that allows healthcare insurers to reimburse patients who have paid for medicinal cannabis. Voters…

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Cannabis is made by the body and the brain makes two of the endogenous cannabinoids. If is highly anti-inflammatory, and profoundly important mainly in the immune system but also in bone turnover. You have more cannabinoid receptors in your body than any other kind. It is as old as sponges, an ancient medicine.

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A WORTHY READ

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Mr. X – by Carl Sagan who describes his experience with marijuana at length and used it creatively for decades opening his brain to experiences he was otherwise not oriented to at all.

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MUNCHIES

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Fear the munchies. Cannabis, medical marijuana, can cause the munchies, an overwhelming desire to eat nonstop, usually all the most high calorie things your desperately fevered brain can dream of cramming in.

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Certain strains of cannabis can be life saving for those who have loss of appetite from conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, depression, inflammatory conditions, etc. But the munchies can be disastrous when you cannot afford to gain weight due to pain or disability or simply wish to develop an important standard to maintain best health which means good lean body weight. The best way to reduce inflammation is to avoid obesity, avoid sugar, avoid diabetes, heart attacks, strokes. Remember inflammation is the root cause of 90% of the conditions we die of: diabetes, cancers, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, autoimmune disease, atherosclerosis, etc.

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Those with an eating disorder should scrupulously avoid those strains that are highly rated for helping anorexia, loss of appetite.

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CHOOSE STRAINS THAT STOP THE MUNCHIES

STRAINS WITH HIGH THCV  OR HIGH CBD 

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If needing high THC for pain or appetite, for example, then a strain with high THC and high THCV is Durban Poison. Read in detail about strains on leafy.com using the search function and it will find dispensaries in your area.

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If low THC is all you need, then Leafly discusses high CBD strains with low THC currently available. Google it or ask the dispensary.

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I am not going to do more than mention these three cannabinoids: THC, CBD, THCV. You can google them but do glance at my outdated 2009 cannabis website – CBD has vastly changed since then, available even at farmer’s markets and nutrition departments of groceries.

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The cannabis plant has 400 chemicals of which about 86 are known cannabinoids but we focus on just a few and hybrids have been bred to display many qualities and various percentages of cannabinoids.

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THC

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THC, tetrahydrocannabinol, can cause euphoria and is the principal psychoactive ingredient useful for pain, depression, appetite, multiple sclerosis, fatigue, stress, and many conditions including just to have fun, be giggly or creative. For the California Medical Board, a strain with 18% THC is considered high, but some strains such as Holy Grail have 27% or more THC. Some strains are noted for causing more anxiety or paranoia due to THC content. It is widely said THC is necessary for pain relief but… see CBD below.

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CBD

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CBD, cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabidiol that blocks the psychoactive component of THC so that you may be able to mix with THC in order to use a stronger dose of THC for the underlying condition —  find your best ratio of CBD to THC. Or use 100% CBD. Among strains of flower sold at dispensary, I’m not sure what % CBD

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Some people are highly sensitive to THC (paranoia, panic attacks, anxiety) and cannot use any THC or only very tiny amounts of THC with higher percentage CBD.

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Some use pure 100% CBD which is said to be useful for Crohn’s Disease, PTSD, multiple sclerosis and certain seizure disorders, the severe childhood Dravet Syndrome. There is a recent single report of an adult who failed all anticonvulsants and responded to CBD alone. I have seen a patient with depression after 2 years of severe disability from 4 major chronic pain conditions, surprisingly all pain 100% relieved by CBD. It is widely said that THC is essential for pain relief but for this case not needed.

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Some dispensaries will mix liquid CBD:THC in ratios of 15mg/mL CBD to 0.1 mg/mL CBD all the way up to ratio of 15:15 or more. Use topically, under tongue or swallow. One patient dilutes and uses topically. Very expensive!!! It is the only thing helping his extremely painful autoimmune neuropathy.

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THCV

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Leafly discusses ten strains that will not make you (as) hungry

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After discussing high CBD strains, then turn to high THCV:

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High THCV Sativa Strains

“By now you know what THC and CBD is, but you may not be familiar with the less ubiquitous THCV, a related chemical that suppresses appetite. While most strains on the market today tend to test anywhere between 10-20% THC, what’s considered a high THCV content might only hit a high-water mark of 5%. THCV tends to be more abundant in sativa strains, and it’s possible you’ve noticed that sativas tend to provoke hunger less than indica strains. The unique metabolic effects of THCV even have researchers considering its utility in treating obesity and diabetes.”

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Durban Poison is the name of the strain with highest THC and THCV, and a good profile detailed on Leafly: Maximal effect is Energetic > happy > uplifted >> focused >> euphoric. Not everyone may have all these effects.

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Always check Leafly’s negatives for each strain and look at the bar graphs — how severe are the side effects? Note that always worst is dry mouth. Half as bad are dry eyes for this strain – at least not as bad as dry mouth; and much lower in incidence is dizzy, anxious, paranoid. Overall a very good profile for a high THC strain.

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RISKS

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Note, those with Sjogren’s Syndrome who have dry eyes are at risk for corneal transplants and who have dry mouth are at risk for all teeth crumbling, so choose and treat accordingly.

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Cannabis can increase pulse and blood pressure which can be a risk of heart attack and stroke for any age. It is especially likely if you are naive to the drug, i.e. have never used it or have not introduced it to your system for decades. Check blood pressure and pulse before use and after you feel the peak effect.

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The youngest person I found on the internet who died of heart attack caused by cannabis was a healthy 17 year old male, possibly a false report, but cardiac arrhythmias can be fatal and there are undiagnosed cardiac conditions in young athletes who may be likely to use cannabis.

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Cannabis can interfere with memory.

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The adolescent developing brain may be vulnerable to harmful effects.

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HOW TO USE IT

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Vaporize it. Avoid 4 toxins. Rapid onset, short duration of effect.

If smoking, you will inhale 4 major toxins.

Use under tongue or topically on skin.

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If you swallow cannabis, you will not feel effect for 90 to 120 minutes so allow 2 hours before you add more or you may seriously overdose. Duration of effect may be 4 to 12 hours or more – overdosing can last days.

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5 mg oral THC may be too much for a starter dose for some people, but may be average for many, and some may need 10 mg. But heavy users need far, far more: TOLERANCE DEVELOPS!!! Money down the drain. Use only as much as you need or you will develop tolerance and require more frequent and higher and higher doses to reach same effect. That can be unaffordable for the average middle class person. 

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And yes, it may appear in urine for 30 to 60 days, possibly more.

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Cannabis is still a schedule I drug. The Emperor has no clothes. Do not take it onto planes or attempt to mail it.

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Do read more about it on my cannabis website linked above. It is a drug. You will benefit from learning how to use it.

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The material on this site is for informational purposes only.

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It is not legal for me to provide medical advice without an examination.

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It is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified health care provider.

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Comments are welcome.

This site is not for email, not for medical questions, and not for appointments.

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For My Home Page, click here:  Welcome to my Weblog on Pain Management!

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Please IGNORE THE ADS BELOW. They are not from me.

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Veterans Suicides 20 per day – MD not paid in 12 months for 5 approved visits


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VA Conducts Nation’s Largest Analysis of Veteran Suicide

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Read the report all you want, but for 12 months I’m not reimbursed. And no explanation why. No wonder they can’t get doctors.

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Yet another call just now from TriWest asking me to treat a veteran. VA crisis lines leave vets in limbo. Calls go to voice mail. Veterans have killed themselves just after calls to crisis lines. A lot of these suicides are due to PTSD. Veterans cannot get the help they need.

 

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I believe it is TriWest who won the contract to schedule suicidal veterans who have Treatment Resistant Depression or PTSD or Bipolar Depression. I treat that. It works except in the most extreme cases, in minutes to just a couple days. It’s simple and safe for outpatient use. It has been tested at NIMH and Yale since 1991. The VA-UCSD psychiatrist referred him and then continued care.

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I will not see one more veteran until I am reimbursed for the 5 pre-approved visits for a veteran I treated 12 months ago. He was better in a few days, the first time in decades he had relief of depression. If you cannot pay me who can relieve treatment resistant Major Depression in 2 days, then honey, no wonder you can’t find docs to help. They limited me to their chosen codes for billing. I spoke to psychiatrists who work with veterans and they have never heard of those codes. I guess they just mean loud and clear: NO PAY. Fine. It was a pay cut to offer and took weeks of paper forms, months of approval – you have to really want to do it. With frequent help from a very experienced clerk and a doggedly informed veteran who knew all the ropes, it took months for paperwork to get rushed through. Plenty of doctors just graduating this month don’t know how many months paperwork takes and they won’t get paid.

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San Diego VA has the worst reputation in the nation. I understand it is the San Diego VA that has the worst lag time delays of several months before veterans can even be seen. Worst in the country. Correct me if I’m wrong. And we have a lot more veterans because warm sunny weather is easier on their bones. Is that any excuse to dis-incentivise any doctor by not paying for services?

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The new veterans suicide hotline does not even return all calls. Public Radio just had an expose’ on this one or two weeks ago.

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Twenty veterans take their life daily.

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Only 30% of people with depression respond to antidepressants.

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Based on publications from major academic centers, treatment resistant depression, it seems, is diagnosed after failing as few as 3 or 4 antidepressants.

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Compare any antidepressant to ketamine with potential relief in hours to a couple days.

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It’s not like this is new. In 1991 ketamine was first studied at NIH for depression. Yale has carried the work forward with them. But people live at home and it has to be cost effective. It is unnecessary and/or unaffordable for most people including taxparers to be paying for IV infusions when many or most patients do well on sublingual or nasal use. It is the #1 drug of abuse in China, so don’t just offer it to any person who needs it. Make sure you understand how important glial modulators are in depression. See Yale with NIMH publication on inflammation in depression, I posted on these pages about 3 or 4 years ago when it came out.

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Yale with NIMH had published that ketamine rapidly creates synapses.

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And Yale has published:


Activation of a ventral hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex pathway is both necessary and sufficient for an antidepressant response to ketamine

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In January 2012, I posted detailed information:

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Depression PTSD – Ketamine Rapid Relief

 

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  • PTSD has a more direct link to suicide than previously thought, a current Texas A&M University study concludes – references below.

  • A high lifetime risk of suicide occurs in women who have been sexually and physically abused as young girls.

  • More than 300,000 veterans have been diagnosed with PTSD or major depression – many not yet diagnosed.

  • Risk of suicide is the highest during the first month of standard antidepressant therapy, and a significant number of patients do not have adequate improvement even after months, resulting in harm to personal and professional lives.

  • Patients are at suicide risk upon discharge from psychiatric hospitals.

  • Significant predictors of both suicide attempts and preoccupation with suicide are guilt and anger and impulsive behaviors.

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  • Ketamine is the most important breakthrough in treatment of major depression with rapid and lasting effects.

  • Ketmine can help immediately, unlike all other antidepressants that may require weeks or months to work, if they help at all. See NPR report here – that appeared soon after I posted this (skip to their last section). It is FDA approved and legal. NPR again reports ketamine’s rapid relief of depression.

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    • The medical literature on ketamine use is profoundly important. There are over 6,800 medical publications. Ketamine has potent healing powers. Karl Jansen, psychiatrist in London, believes that “ketamine has potent healing powers when used as an adjunct to psychotherapy.” There is nothing like it; however, treatment for serious depression still requires team support, not medication only.

    •  The World Health Organization reports that disability to due depression is second only to heart disease.

    • Suicide is a catastrophic medical emergency. I cannot stress this enough. Depression is treatable.

    • Your death is unnecessary. It would be a terrible loss to all who love you.

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Please read that entire post January 2012 before you call to ask questions. The calls are very time consuming.

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There is no reason to restrict life and death matters to one drug, and then make it dependent upon only IV infusions. What kind of life is vegetating in depression for decades? It is a short acting drug. I have posted on why ketamine should never be used alone, but must be used with other glial modulators.

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Most troubling:

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Compounded Medications are Not Covered by Any Insurance

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Most people cannot afford compounded medications, especially if disabled due to Major Depression or PTSD or pain – same medications work on mood and pain.

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TAKE ACTION

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Healthy people can get back their lives. These simple steps can be taught across the nation. Millions are needlessly disabled, especially our young adults who are most vulnerable to these disorders, and several hundred thousand of our young veterans.

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An entire nation can get and breathe relief.

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DO THIS:

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Call your favorite politician and relevant organizations who care about healthcare and veterans to STOP the collusion and restraint of trade since all insurers began refusing to cover compounded medications. All these new $100,000 per year medications are paid for by the taxpayers and your insurance deductible that goes up every year. How long will you be able to afford medical care? How long can this restraint of trade be practiced under our noses unless we take action?

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Get this on the Democratic platform this presidential year. It’s a scam perpetuated by multibillion dollar pharma and their mighty rich contributions to congress who are killing affordable medical care.

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Affordable medical care

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These medications must be compounded. How many can afford $200 to $300 or more cash out of pocket just for medications? Or will this become another safe old drug that is bought by a financier, patented, and now they charge $100,000 a year? You know who pays for everything and it ain’t the 1%.

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Ketamine Rapidly Relieves Depression by Restoring Brain Connections


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This research is one of the most dramatic findings in the field of depression and mood disorders. It was published in Science by researchers from Yale and the National Institute of Mental Health, discussed by PBS here.

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The speed with which ketamine can relieve major depression is deeply moving to witness. In my experience prescribing nasal ketamine it works almost 100% of the time. I have discussed ketamine and previous publications on it for Major Depression and PTSD. It is also effective for suicidal and bipolar depression patients.

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Ronald S. Duman, PhD, the lead scientist, reviews his group’s research in this 2011 video:

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Stress and depression leads to structural changes in the brain and these structural changes are reversible.

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Depression affects 17% of the population, almost one in five of the population. Only one third of patients are effectively treated by existing antidepressants, even after many weeks. Nerve growth factors, in particular BDNF, are decreased by stress, with a very significant loss in depressed patients. BDNF produces antidepressant behavior in rodent models of depression.

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BDNF is important for influencing the survival and function of neurons.

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There are certain neurogenic zones in the brain that produce new neurons. Stress decreases the number of new neurons. Chronic antidepressant use increases the numbers and proliferation of these new neurons. Antidepressant treatment increases neurogenesis and this is dependent upon BDNF, this neurotrophic factor.

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[His slide shows] Exercise, Prozac, ECT, antipsychotics, antidepressants increase neurogenesis.

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Not only are there more synapses made by ketamine, but they are a larger size which is indicative of ones that are more functionally connected. Antidepressants take many weeks. A single dose of ketamine rapidly reverses depressive behaviors and loss of connections and completely reverses the decrements that had occurred over several weeks.

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In suicidal patients given ketamine at Yale in the Emergency Room, within a matter of hours, the suicidality is completely reversed. These people are better for weeks after a single dose of ketamine treatment. [emphasis mine]

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Therapeutically ketamine is even more rapidly acting than ECT.

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Ketamine increases BDNF. But research shows its effects are blocked in mice that are deficient in BDNF. Riluzole also influences BDNF, but the side effect profile is so serious that I would not consider prescribing it without more data on safety.

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Safety concerns are often raised in publications regarding chronic ketamine use. Most of my patients have no side effects at all. It is one of the safest medications we have and only a small percentage experience transient side effects. The favorable side effect profile, simplicity and low cost is key. The results for nasal ketamine are not 100%, neither is IV ketamine, but I have patients who respond to nasal spray when they failed IV ketamine. More importantly, they can carry it in their pocket and use as needed.

 

My experience prescribing ketamine goes back almost to the year 2000 for persons with chronic pain who have used ketamine several times daily, and since Spring 2012 for Major Depression. Its effect for depression lasts longer than for chronic intractable pain where it is short lasting. In the past, I prescribed it orally, by mouth, but since late 2011 I have prescribed it in a nasal spray and that form works for depression.

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The neuroprotective action of ketamine has been published since at least 1988.

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Patients can use nasal ketamine as needed. Schedules vary, everyone is different. It is short acting, but it does not stop working.

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However, the use of other adjuvants, such as glial modulators, in treatment of depression is essential to understand, and is now work in progress. The role of inflammation and glia in the pathogenesis of depression has been well established since 2000, and discussed here.

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Does ketamine also restore brain connections in patients with chronic pain? Chronic pain and major depression both lead to brain atrophy and memory loss. Both cause the same imbalance in glial cytokines. Both may respond to glial modulators, e.g. low dose naltrexone among others that have worked in some patients.

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“The original link between ketamine and relief of depression was made at the Connecticut Mental Health Center in New Haven by John Krystal, chair of the department of psychiatry at Yale, and Dennis Charney, now dean of Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, who helped launch clinical trials of ketamine while at the National Institute of Mental Health,” reported by Yale  here.

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I hope to add new approaches to treatment of anxiety that has failed to respond to other interventions.

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The material on this site is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute

 for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified health care provider.

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Please understand that it is not legal for me to give medical advice without a consultation.

If you wish an appointment, please telephone my office or contact your local psychiatrist.

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For My Home Page, click here:  Welcome to my Weblog on Pain Management!

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Depression PTSD – Ketamine Rapid Relief


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  • PTSD has a more direct link to suicide than previously thought, a current Texas A&M University study concludes – references below.

  • A high lifetime risk of suicide occurs in women who have been sexually and physically abused as young girls.

  • More than 300,000 veterans have been diagnosed with PTSD or major depression – many not yet diagnosed.

  • Risk of suicide is the highest during the first month of standard antidepressant therapy, and a significant number of patients do not have adequate improvement even after months, resulting in harm to personal and professional lives.

  • Patients are at suicide risk upon discharge from psychiatric hospitals.

  • Significant predictors of both suicide attempts and preoccupation with suicide are guilt and anger and impulsive behaviors.

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  • Ketamine is the most important breakthrough in treatment of major depression with rapid and lasting effects.

  • Ketmine can help immediately, unlike all other antidepressants that may require weeks or months to work, if they help at all. See NPR report here – that appeared soon after I posted this (skip to their last section). It is FDA approved and legal. NPR again reports ketamine’s rapid relief of depression. A 28 year old man whose refractory depression began at age 15, after ketamine, says:

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    ‘I Wanted To Live Life’

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    Stephens himself has vivid memories of the day he got ketamine. It was a Monday morning and he woke up feeling really bad, he says. His mood was still dark when doctors put in an IV and delivered the drug.”Monday afternoon I felt like a completely different person,” he says. “I woke up Tuesday morning and I said, ‘Wow, there’s stuff I want to do today.’ And I woke up Wednesday morning and Thursday morning and I actually wanted to do things. I wanted to live life.”.
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    Since then, they treated him with Riluzole that is FDA approved for ALS and has one of the dirtiest side effect profiles I have ever seen in medicine with serious organ toxicity. Ketamine rarely causes mild transient side effects, usually none. It appears the concern is how ketamine is used on the street with potential for abuse. I do not see ketamine abuse in my patients, some of whom are on opioids for pain or Valium family medicines from their psychiatrist. All of those have a greater potential for abuse, also not occurring in my patients. Pain and/or depression can lead to suicide.
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    About 18 months ago, researchers at Yale found a possible explanation for ketamine’s effectiveness. It seems to affect the glutamate system in a way that causes brain cells to form new connections.
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    Researchers have long suspected that stress and depression weaken some connections among brain cells. Ketamine appears to reverse the process.

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    It would be of interest to see a case report of the bladder problems they mention. Is this in a single drug addict who used many unknown medications on the street? Several physicians have infused IV ketamine for persons with pain for many years, in far higher doses than I prescribe, with no report of any but transient minor symptoms.

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    Memory loss and brain atrophy occur with chronic depression, reported by the National Institute of Mental Health ~2001. The mechanism is described by Barsook referenced here.

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  • You do not need to be hospitalized.

  • A single low dose ketamine treatment, given nasally, may reduce core symptoms of PTSD and depression. It can save your life.

  • Relief of depression may occur in 2 minutes to 2 hours and may last 1 to 2 weeks.

  • National Institute of Mental Health published 100% relief in a group with depression refractory to all treatment that failed as long as 43 years.

  • You cannot anticipate when suicidal thoughts occur, but you can carry ketamine with you for instant relief.

  • Ketamine is not toxic, not expensive, side effects if any are transient – usually none. It is compounded by pharmacy.

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  • I can help. I’ve prescribed this medication for 11 years, spoken with some of the world’s foremost psychiatrists. Some of my patients with profound pain/depression travel to Germany for high dose ketamine coma treatment of RSD/CRPS and tolerate those doses. Ketamine is safe even in babies and children. Very few MD’s prescribe ketamine, and even fewer have much experience with it.

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  • I need to examine you in person.

  • I can meet with you at my office and it is essential that you meet with my colleagues, a psychologist and psychiatrist.

  • Time is of the essence because we may need to adjust the concentration of ketamine. We need to determine your comfort level with its use.

  •  This must be a team approach.

  •  Please ask your psychiatrist to call me with your diagnoses and speak with me in person.

  • If you live long distance, this team should include your local psychiatrist, or one nearby, who will prescribe ketamine for depression.

  • Alternately, I will need to see you in my office every few months to renew the medication.

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  • The medical literature on ketamine use is profoundly important. There are over 6,800 medical publications. Ketamine has potent healing powers. Karl Jansen, psychiatrist in London, believes that “ketamine has potent healing powers when used as an adjunct to psychotherapy.” There is nothing like it; however, treatment for serious depression still requires team support, not medication only.

  •  The World Health Organization reports that disability to due depression is second only to heart disease.

  • Suicide is a catastrophic medical emergency. I cannot stress this enough. Depression is treatable.

  • Your death is unnecessary. It would be a terrible loss to all who love you.

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    References
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    http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2013085-clinical#aw2aab6b3b3
    Suicide Clinical Presentation

http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/pages/ptsd-suicide.asp The Relationship Between PTSD and Suicide  

PTSD alone out of six anxiety diagnoses was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempts. Anger and impulsivity have also been shown to predict suicide risk in those with PTSD.

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Articles, below, support use of ketamine for rapid relief of depression, even for resistant bipolar depression. The lead author of the first three studies is Carlos Zarate, M.D., Chief of the Mood and Anxiety Disorders Research Unit of the National Institute of Mental Health, NIMH:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20673547   Rapid resolution of suicidal ideation after a single infusion of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder

100% response in persons with refractory depression: 29% went into remission, another 71% were responders.

http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/67/8/793  A Randomized Add-on Trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate Antagonist in Treatment-Resistant Bipolar Depression It even works for resistant bipolar depression

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2726824/figure/F1/  Ketamine and the next generation of antidepressants with a rapid onset of action

Potential targets for ketamine and similar agents induce rapid and sustained antidepressant effects. A diagram scientists and physicians will find useful for mechanisms. “Notably, ketamine’s rapid antidepressant effects have been shown to be modulated by AMPA relative to NMDA throughput. Excessive glutamate also stimulates the extrasynaptic NMDA receptors, which antagonizes the activation of neurotrophic cascades. The potential sustained (sub-acute) antidepressant effects of ketamine are hypothesized to be mediated by increases in CREB and BDNF expression, as well as the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.”

https://www.sciencemag.org/content/329/5994/959.abstract mTOR-Dependent Synapse Formation Underlies the Rapid Antidepressant Effects of NMDA Antagonists

“The rapid antidepressant response after ketamine administration in treatment-resistant depressed patients suggests a possible new approach for treating mood disorders compared to the weeks or months required for standard medications….Our results demonstrate that these effects of ketamine are opposite to the synaptic deficits that result from exposure to stress and could contribute to the fast antidepressant actions of ketamine.”

http://psychiatry.jwatch.org/cgi/content/full/2010/1008/5 Ketamine’s quick antidepressant actions

“The resulting protein synthesis and neuronal alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex are the opposite of those produced by chronic stress….”

 

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The material on this site is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute

 for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified health care provider..

~

Please understand that it is not legal for me to give medical advice without a consultation.

If you wish an appointment, please telephone my office or contact your local psychiatrist.

~

For My Home Page, click here:  Welcome to my Weblog on Pain Management!

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